To replace fossil energies by renewable energies, some technical adaptations are necessary:
- The electrical network must become smarter: today electrical production is concentrated in a few places (hydraulic dams, nuclear or coal powerstations), with many consumers. Tomorrow there will be many more production points (any well orientated roof), and the electrical grid will have to adapt to variable energy production depending on sun and wind conditions. We will need to store excess energy to use when required.
- Transport will be almost exclusively electrical, so we will need to store electrical power in an efficient manner that allows it to be carried around
As you can see, storage and transport of electrical energy is a critical point. Many researchers are working on this, in Switzerland and elsewhere:
A lot of research also aims to improve the production of energy :
and to reduce energy consumption:
Another necessary technology according to IPCC is carbon storage (CCS): this could equip coal power stations, and allow them to produce energy with a reduced quantity of CO2 emissions. The goal is to reduce the quantity of pollution before more long term solutions can be implemented.